|KEY WORD : architecture / castles|
| A stone loophole used to fire a gun through a castle
wall. Unlike the usual loopholes *sama
狭間, that are bored through walls in the keep or other castle buildings themselves,
ishisama openings are made through the top of the foundation walls *ishigaki
石垣, below. As is usual for loopholes, the inside of the opening is cut wider than
the outside. Ishisama were employed at Edojou 江戸城 Hirakawamon 平川門 and
Kyoto's Nijojou 二条城. Good examples can still be seen at Osakajou 大阪城.
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