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ishibashi@΋
KEY WORD :@architecture / gardens
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Lit. stone bridge. A general term for a garden bridge made of stones, typically granite or schist. Ishibashi may be made of cut stones *kiri-ishibashi ؐ΋ or stones left in their natural state. They may be functional or purely decorative and they may span water or may cross the dry stream *karenagare ͗ of a dry landscape *karesansui ͎R garden. In the Heian period, large, arched bridges of cut stones were used primarily for functional purposes. In the Muromachi period, the rise of aesthetic values derived from Chinese Sung dynasty culture led to the use of uncut stones in one, two and three plank bridges in pond and stream gardens *chisen kaiyuushiki teien rV뉀. Good examples can be seen in the dry gardens at Tenryuuji V and Jishouji Ǝ, Kyoto. In dry gardens such as the Taizouin ޑ@ at Myoushinji S and Daisen-in @ at Daitokuji 哿, Kyoto, smaller uncut stones were used as "bridges" to increase the illusion of a dry stream "flowing" beneath them. In the large and visually powerful gardens of the Momoyama period, large cut and uncut stones were frequently used in both pond gardens; Ni-no-maru ̊ at Nijoujou and Sanbouin O@ at Daigoji 펛, Kyoto, and in dry gardens; Nishihonganji {莛, Kyoto and Kyuu Tokushimajou Omotegoten teien \a뉀 at Tokushima prefecture. In the Edo period traditional ishibashi continued to be used, but some innovations can also be seen. For instance, at Kenrokuen Z in Ishikawa prefecture, a stone bridge is arranged so as to suggest a flock of geese flying in formation. Or, at Sentou Gosho 哴䏊 in Kyoto, there is frequent mixing of cut and uncut stones in the many bridges.
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