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Ippen@ˆê•Õ
CATEGORY:@art history / iconography
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Commonly known as Ippen Shounin ˆê•Õãl or St. Ippen (1234-89). The founder of the Ji Žž sect. From Iyo ˆÉ—\ province (modern Ehime prefecture) in Shikoku Žl‘, his original name was Chishin ’q^. Ippen first studied Tendai “V‘ä Buddhism on Mt. Hiei ”ä‰b in Shiga prefecture, and then Pure land Joudo ò“y Buddhism at Dazaifu ‘¾É•{ in Kyuushuu ‹ãB. During a pilgrimmage to Kumano ŒF–ì, the deity revealed to Ippen that enlightenment was determined by *Amida ˆ¢–í‘É and that Ippen should devote himself to preaching the importance of reciting the name of Amida, nenbutsu ”O•§. Ippen and a band of followers travelled throughout the country proselytizing with their ecstatic nenbutsu dance, nenbutsu-odori ”O•§—x‚è, and won a wide following among common people. Ippen's insistence on constant travelling and giving up of family and possessions led to his nicknames: Yugyou Shounin —Vsãl (Traveling Saint) and Sute hijiri ŽÌ¹ (Holy Man of Renunciation). After his death, Ippen's portrait was made in paintings (Shoujoukouji ´òŒõŽ›, Kanagawa prefecture); in sculpted images (Chourakuji ’·ŠyŽ›, Kyoto); and, most notably, in illustrated narrative scrolls *emaki ŠGŠª. The Ippen hijiri-e ˆê•Õ¹ŠG (Painting of St. Ippen) was edited by Ippen's disciple Shoukai ¹‰ú, and, according to an inscription dated 1299, was painted by the artist En-i ‰~ˆÉ (Kankikouji Š½ŠìŒõŽ›, Kyoto, and Tokyo National Museum). The twelve handscrolls on silk show Ippen's trip around Japan, and are well-known for their naturalistic depiction of famous places *meisho-e –¼ŠŠG, including Mt. Fuji •xŽm, Kumano, Shitennouji Žl“V‰¤Ž›, Zenkouji ‘PŒõŽ›, Enoshima ]ƒm“‡, *Yoshino ‹g–ì, Itsukushima Œµ“‡, and Naruto ––å. The treatment of space shows the influence of Chinese Song and Yuan period landscape painting (see *sougenga ‘vŒ³‰æ). A second type of biographical handscroll Ippen Shounin Engi-e ˆê•Õãl‰‹NŠG, edited by Ippen's other disciple, Soushun @r, was painted sometime between 1304 and 1307. The original scrolls no longer exist but@were copied in many other versions including those at Shinkouji ^ŒõŽ› in Hyougo prefecture (Ten scrolls, dated 1323) and Kindaiji ‹à‘䎛 in Nagano prefecture (One scroll). These versions are characterized by the addition of the biography of Ippen's most important disciple Taa ‘¼ˆ¢ (1237-1319). In the Shinkouji version, the first four scrolls depict Ippen's life, while the last six concern the life of Taa and the spread of Ji sect teaching. Kinrenji ‹à˜@Ž› in Kyoto has a Muromachi copy (Twenty scrolls) of the now-lost work, dated 1307, which could be (or, at least was very close to) the original of this group.
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EXTERNAL LINKS: 
@Ippen Shouninden Emaki ˆê•Õãl“`ŠGŠª (Šª‘掵) at Tokyo National Museum@
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