|KEY WORD :@art history / paintings|
yuantihua. Lit. academy style painting. A type of Chinese painting associated
with the Imperial Court Academy. Broadly speaking, the term may refer to the styles
of each Imperial Court Academy beginning with that of the Tang dynasty and continuing
through the Ming dynasty. More specifically, intaiga designates the Song
Academy style, perpetuated as a classic mode by later Chinese and Japanese artists.
Officially known as the Hanlin Tuhuayuan (Jp: Kanrin Togain ËÑ}æ@), the painting
academy, gain æ@ functioned as a separate bureau within the Hanlin Academy
(Ch: Hanlinyuan; Jp: Kanrin-in ËÑ@), the group of scholars serving the court. Although the Hanlin
Academy was established in 738 during the reign of Emperor Xuansong (Jp: *Gensou º@, 685-762), the term gain first was used in the mid-9c work MingLidaihuachi (Jp: REKIDAI MEIGAKI ðã¼æL) by Zhang Yenyuan (Jp: Chou Gen'en £F, 815?-after
874). Artisans had long been called to serve the government, but it is in the
Tang period that an academy of painters was first utilized to provide decoration
for the imperial court and government offices. The two most famous and influential
academies were the Northern Song painting academy under Emperor Huizong
(Jp: Kisou J@, 1082-1135) and the Southern Song painting academy under Emperor
Gaozong(Jp: Kousou @, 1107-87). The Northern Song academy created a highly colored
and naturalistic mode of rendering bird-and-flower subjects intai kachouga
@ÌÔ¹æ. The Southern Song academy style, dominated by the Li Tang (Jp: Ri Tou
, act. early 12c) which influenced the landscapes of Ma Yuan (Jp: Ba En n, act.
late 12c-early 13c) and Xia Gui (Jp: Ka Kei Ä], act.1194-1224), became
a dominant force within Chinese and Japanese landscape painting. The academy style
of landscape painting intai sansuiga @ÌR
æ features assymetrical
or one-corner composition *henkaku
no kei ÓpÌi, emphasis on the void, thick, angular outlines, and axe-cut
texture strokes *fuhekishun
á. In China, the academy style, nearly extinct during the Yuan dynasty, was
revitalized by the so-called Ming academy painters associated with the Zhe school,
Intaiga first entered Japan through imported Song paintings including: Autumn and Winter Landscapes Shuutou sansui-zu H~R } attributed to Emperor Huizong, in Konchi-in àn@, Kyoto; Landscapes Sansui-zu R } attributed to Li Tang, Koutouin Ë@, Kyoto; Oxen Shuuya bokugyuu-zu Hìq} attributed to Yan Ciping (Jp: En Jihei è ½, act. late 12c), Sen'oku Hakkokan ò®ÃÙ, Kyoto; Ox and Herdboys Sekichuu kiboku-zu áAq} by Li Di (Jp: Ri Teki ç, act. late 12c), Yamato Bunkakan åa¶ØÙ, Nara; Snow Landscape Sekkei sansui-zu áiR } attributed to Liang Kai (Jp: Ryou Kai À², act. early 13c), Tokyo National Museum; and numerous paintings attributed to Ma Yuan and Xia Guei. These works and others served as models for much early Muromachi landscape painting, in particular the Shoukokuji style associated with Shuubun ü¶ (act. 15c). A second wave of academy style painting entered Japan with the Zhe school and influenced the landscapes of Sesshuu áM (1420-1501). The academy mode also formed the basis of the Kanou style (see *Kanouha ëìh) which dominated Japanese landscape painting of the 16-17c.
(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.