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intaiga@‰@‘̉æ
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Ch: yuantihua. Lit. academy style painting. A type of Chinese painting associated with the Imperial Court Academy. Broadly speaking, the term may refer to the styles of each Imperial Court Academy beginning with that of the Tang dynasty and continuing through the Ming dynasty. More specifically, intaiga designates the Song Academy style, perpetuated as a classic mode by later Chinese and Japanese artists. Officially known as the Hanlin Tuhuayuan (Jp: Kanrin Togain ŠË—ѐ}‰æ‰@), the painting academy, gain ‰æ‰@ functioned as a separate bureau within the Hanlin Academy (Ch: Hanlinyuan; Jp: Kanrin-in ŠË—щ@), the group of scholars serving the court. Although the Hanlin Academy was established in 738 during the reign of Emperor Xuansong (Jp: *Gensou Œº@, 685-762), the term gain first was used in the mid-9c work MingLidaihuachi (Jp: REKIDAI MEIGAKI —ð‘ã–¼‰æ‹L) by Zhang Yenyuan (Jp: Chou Gen'en ’£•F‰“, 815?-after 874). Artisans had long been called to serve the government, but it is in the Tang period that an academy of painters was first utilized to provide decoration for the imperial court and government offices. The two most famous and influential academies were the Northern Song painting academy under Emperor Huizong (Jp: Kisou ‹J@, 1082-1135) and the Southern Song painting academy under Emperor Gaozong(Jp: Kousou ‚@, 1107-87). The Northern Song academy created a highly colored and naturalistic mode of rendering bird-and-flower subjects intai kachouga ‰@‘̉Ԓ¹‰æ. The Southern Song academy style, dominated by the Li Tang (Jp: Ri Tou —›“‚, act. early 12c) which influenced the landscapes of Ma Yuan (Jp: Ba En ”n‰“, act. late 12c-early 13c) and Xia Gui (Jp: Ka Kei ‰ÄŒ], act.1194-1224), became a dominant force within Chinese and Japanese landscape painting. The academy style of landscape painting intai sansuiga ‰@‘ÌŽR…‰æ features assymetrical or one-corner composition *henkaku no kei •ÓŠp‚ÌŒi, emphasis on the void, thick, angular outlines, and axe-cut texture strokes *fuhekishun •€™œá­. In China, the academy style, nearly extinct during the Yuan dynasty, was revitalized by the so-called Ming academy painters associated with the Zhe school, Seppa Ÿ´”h.
Intaiga first entered Japan through imported Song paintings including: Autumn and Winter Landscapes Shuutou sansui-zu H“~ŽR…} attributed to Emperor Huizong, in Konchi-in ‹à’n‰@, Kyoto; Landscapes Sansui-zu ŽR…} attributed to Li Tang, Koutouin ‚‹Ë‰@, Kyoto; Oxen Shuuya bokugyuu-zu H–ì–q‹} attributed to Yan Ciping (Jp: En Jihei 腎Ÿ•½, act. late 12c), Sen'oku Hakkokan ò‰®”ŽŒÃŠÙ, Kyoto; Ox and Herdboys Sekichuu kiboku-zu á’†‹A–q} by Li Di (Jp: Ri Teki —›çŒ, act. late 12c), Yamato Bunkakan ‘å˜a•¶‰ØŠÙ, Nara; Snow Landscape Sekkei sansui-zu áŒiŽR…} attributed to Liang Kai (Jp: Ryou Kai —Àž², act. early 13c), Tokyo National Museum; and numerous paintings attributed to Ma Yuan and Xia Guei. These works and others served as models for much early Muromachi landscape painting, in particular the Shoukokuji ‘Š‘Ž› style associated with Shuubun Žü•¶ (act. 15c). A second wave of academy style painting entered Japan with the Zhe school and influenced the landscapes of Sesshuu áM (1420-1501). The academy mode also formed the basis of the Kanou style (see *Kanouha Žë–ì”h) which dominated Japanese landscape painting of the 16-17c.
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