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houkei@•σιŸ
CATEGORY:@art history / sculptures
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Also houkei ›ιŸ. The hair of a sculpted figure tied up on top of the head in a topknot. Found on bodhisattva *bosatsu •μŽF, guardian deities *ten “V, and *Dainichi ‘ε“ϊ images. Hair tied into a single topknot is called *tankei ’PιŸ, and hair divided into two bunches is called *soukei ‘oιŸ. The style of houkei varied according to the period, and thus are useful in dating figures. In the Asuka and Hakuhou periods there was no fixed style, but in the Tenpyou period two distinct trends were established. The first tied the hair into a single, high topknot, known as koukei ‚ιŸ, as in the standing *ShouKannon ΉŠΟ‰Ή (bronze 7c), in Yakushiji Touindou –ςŽtŽ›“Œ‰@“°, Nara. The second used strands of hair, wound round the topknot like ribbons positioned one above the other. This style was derived from Tang dynasty China. A good example is the standing *Ashura ˆ’C—… (8c, dry-lacquer) in Koufukuji ‹»•ŸŽ›, Nara. A special example of the topknot is found on *Monju •ΆŽκ•μŽF statues, according to descriptions in Esoteric Buddhism mikkyou –§‹³ texts. Monju appears with one, five, six, or eight topknots but most frequently his hair is tied into five round bunches, gokei ŒάιŸ, on top of the head. One such example is the wooden Monju seated on a lion in Hannyaji ”ΚŽαŽ›, Nara. During the Heian period hanging hairstyles *suihotsu ‚”―, were more popular than the houkei, but the high topknot came back into fashion in the Kamakura period.
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