|KEY WORD :@art history / sculptures|
| Also houkei ι. The hair of a sculpted figure
tied up on top of the head in a topknot. Found on bodhisattva *bosatsu
μF, guardian deities *ten V,
and *Dainichi εϊ images. Hair tied
into a single topknot is called *tankei
Pι, and hair divided into two bunches is called *soukei
oι. The style of houkei varied according to the period, and thus are useful
in dating figures. In the Asuka and Hakuhou periods there was no fixed
style, but in the Tenpyou period two distinct trends were established. The
first tied the hair into a single, high topknot, known as koukei ι, as
in the standing *ShouKannon ΉΟΉ (bronze 7c), in Yakushiji Touindou ςt@°, Nara.
The second used strands of hair, wound round the topknot like ribbons positioned
one above the other. This style was derived from Tang dynasty China. A good example is
the standing *Ashura ’C
(8c, dry-lacquer) in Koufukuji », Nara. A special example
of the topknot is found on *Monju ΆκμF statues, according to descriptions
in Esoteric Buddhism mikkyou §³ texts. Monju appears with one, five,
six, or eight topknots but most frequently his hair is tied into five round bunches, gokei άι, on top of the head. One such example is the wooden Monju seated on a lion in Hannyaji Κα, Nara. During the Heian period hanging
hairstyles *suihotsu ―,
were more popular than the houkei, but the high topknot came back into
fashion in the Kamakura period.
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