|daimyou teien 大名庭園|
|KEY WORD : architecture / general terms|
|Lit. daimyou garden. The Edo period stroll style *kaiyuushiki teien 回遊式庭園 gardens built by feudal lords (daimyou either in Edo or in their provincial castle towns joukamachi 城下町. The relative peace and prosperity of the Edo period combined with competition among daimyou and their desire to legitimize their power through cultural patronage led to the creation of these large and lavishly appointed gardens. In the manner of aristocratic retreats such as Katsura Rikyuu 桂離宮 and Shugakuin Rikyuu 修学院離宮 almost all daimyou teien include large ponds (see *chisen kaiyuushiki teien 池泉回遊式庭園) around which are arranged artificial hills as well a number of pavilions. A tea house *chashitsu 茶室 and garden (*roji 露路 or *chaniwa 茶庭) are usually included. Typically these daimyou gardens make extensive use of *shukukei 縮景, famous scenic spots from China and Japan reproduced in miniature form. The literary and historical references inherent in shukkei signal the daimyou's cultural sophistication even as the multiple scenes in most shukkei provide an ordering principle which helps move the viewer through the garden. Daimyou teien make use of a number of old gardening techniques in addition to elements such as rice paddies, fruit orchards and herb gardens as well as enormous rolling lawns. Because provincial daimyou gardens were built adjacent to castles, the hydraulic and horticultural features of the garden often served practical functions. Notable daimyou teien in Tokyo include Koishikawa Kourakuen 小石川後楽園, Rikugien 六義園, and Hama Rikyuu 浜離宮; other well known gardens are Kenrokuen 兼六園 in Ishikawa prefecture, Kourakuen 後楽園 in Okayama prefecture, Ritsurin Kouen 栗林公園 in Ehime prefecture, Kairakuen 偕楽園 in Ibaraki prefecture, Suizenji 水前寺 Seishuen 成趣園 in Kumamoto prefecture, and Genkyuuen 玄宮園 in Shiga prefecture.|
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