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chuudou@’†“°
KEY WORD :@architecture / buildings & structures
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Lit. central hall. A hall situated between two Buddhist halls or a hall with corridors attached on either side. The most well known is the chuudou at Byoudouin *Hououdou •½“™‰@–P™€“° (1053) in Kyoto. It is the focal point of the temple as it exists today and has wing corridors *yokurou —ƒ˜L, on each side creating a perfect balance of parts.
First built as a villa by Fujiwara Yorimichi “¡Œ´—Š“¹ (992-1074) and then converted into a hall 5 x 4 bays, 14.2 ~11.82cm, to enshrine an exceedingly large 4.83m seated statue of *Amida ˆ¢–í‘É, carved by Jouchou ’è’© (? -1057). The slender posts that surround the exterior are square and support the pent roof *mokoshi ÖŠK, at the front and sides. There are no walls between them. The enclosed space is three bays wide and two deep. Very tall, thick pillars are placed at the front corners. Two more pillars are places at the front in line with the corner pillars, and there are two on each side and two at the back of the podium on which the Amida statue is placed.
The pillars at the rear corners and in between are tall but small in diameter. The chuudou is only 1-story. The hidden roof *noyane –쉮ª, and cantilevers *hanegi ‹j–Ø, were added at a later time. The tiled roof *hongawarabuki –{Š¢•˜, is of the hip-and-gable style *irimoya-zukuri “ü•ê‰®‘¢. Two chuudou that follow a plan in which the worship area *raidou —ç“°, and sanctuary *naijin “àw, are clearly separated are exemplified by the *Konpon chuudou ª–{’†“° at Enryakuji ‰„— (1640) in Shiga prefecture and the Chuudou at Risshakuji —§ÎŽ› (1356) in Yamagata prefecture, popularly called Yamadera ŽRŽ›. The Yamadera Chuudou, 5 x 5 bays 16.97 x 12.25m, is typical of main halls at esoteric temples, in the northeastern part of Honshuu –{B. Simple 3-on-1 bracket complexes *demitsudo oŽO“l, at right angles, to each other, capped bearing blocks *kentozuka ŠÔ“l‘©, double eaves *futanoki “ñŒ¬, and closely spaced rafters *shigedaruki ”ɐ‚–Ø, all denote the Japanese style of architecture *wayou ˜a—l. The roofing was changed, during a renovation in 1962 to copper sheets laid over a wood base to simulate finely layered shingles *kokerabuki Š`•˜. The roof is hip and gable *irimoya-zukuri “ü•ê‰®‘¢, with diagonal braces *sasu LŽñ, in the gable pediment. The roof retains its original shape. Chuudou found at temples belonging to the Tendai “V‘ä sect, enshrine the main Buddhist image revered by the temple. Its role is comparable to the main hall *hondou –{“° or *kondou ‹à“° at some Tendai sect temples, and these terms may be used instead of chuudou.
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