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chiken-in@’qŒˆσ
CATEGORY:@art history / sculptures
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Lit. knowledge-fist mudra. A mudra or hand gesture *in ˆσ formed by grasping the tip of the raised forefinger of the otherwise clenched left hand with the clenched right hand. Although rare, there have also been reported examples in which the positions of the left and right hands were reversed (e.g., image of *Dainichi ‘ε“ϊ at Oomishima Jinja ‘εŽO“‡_ŽΠ, Ehime prefecture ). In India this mudra was known as either jnanamusti mudra or bodhyagr mudra. In Japan it is generally known as chiken-in (also pronounced chiken-in by practitioners of Esoteric Buddhism mikkyou –§‹³), or knowledge-fist mudra. In the iconography of Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, however, the term bodhyagri mudra was generally used, and this is translated in Japan as kakushou-in ŠoŸˆσ or mudra of supreme enlightenment. There are various theories on the origins and symbolism of this mudra. According to some authorities, it is derived from the *tenbourin-in “]–@—Φˆσ, while others equate the left hand with the male organ the right hand with the female organ and maintain that it represents by means of sexual symbolism the central deity of the mandala *mandara ™ΦδΆ—… from which all the other deities emanate. According to the traditional interpretation of Japanese Esoteric Buddhism, however, the left and right hands represent sentient beings and Buddhas respectively, and this mudra is generally interpreted as symbolizing the mutual response of the buddha and sentient beings. The mudra is most commonly seen in images of Dainichi in the Mandala of the Diamond World *Kongoukai mandara ‹ΰ„ŠE™ΦδΆ—…, but is also found on other deities affiliated with Esoteric Buddhism, such as *Ichijikinrin Butchou ˆκŽš‹ΰ—Φ•§’Έ (e.g.,Chuusonji ’†‘ΈŽ›, Iwate prefecture ), Sonshou Butchou ‘ΈŸ•§’Έ (e.g., central deity of the East Stupa on Mt. Kouya ‚–μ, Wakayama prefecture), and Daishou Kongou ‘εŸ‹ΰ„.
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