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chanoyugama@
KEY WORD :@architecture / tea houses
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A cauldron, iron pot, or kettle. Also called *kama or chagama .

A tea kettle is used exclusively for boiling water at a tea ceremony, and is considered the ceremony's most essential vessel. It differs from other vessels in that its mouth is small. Most are made of cast iron but copper ones are not unknown. The earliest kettle for tea is said to have been made for the priest Myoue b(1173-1232), at the temple Kouzanji R, by a master kettle-maker in Ashiya , Fukuoka prefecture. From this time until the end of the Muromachi period aside from Ashiya kettles ashiyagama , kettles made in Sano , Tochigi prefecture, tenmyougama V were most in demand. By the late 16c, there were many tea masters who ordered vessels according to their own preferences. Because the tea ceremony developed in the Kansai ֐ region, many artisans went to Kyoto to produce kettles at the Sanjou O kilns. Kettles that passed from generation to generation have special names derived from the history of the owner, the kettles shape, pattern, mouth or finish. Kettles are usually round with rounded, squarish or sloping shoulders. An extensive array of patterns exist including: rough skin arehada r sandy skin sunahada or tortoise shell patterns. Others may be finished with Chinese style mountains or rivers, one of the seven gods of fortune, plants, animals and even cloisonne. Kettle mouths have diverse shapes. Some are turned inward, others outward, while others are wide or narrow or notched. Two loops are cast on the shoulder to attach rings when the kettle is to be hung or carried. Often kettles have the shape of an ogre face, but they may have the face of a biting lion, distant mountains, pine cones, or bamboo shoots. Kettle bottoms are rounded, flat and round, or flat and square. The tea ceremony kettle lids chanoyugama futa W, are made of cast iron, and forged at the same time as the body to match the bottoms perfectly. However, lids can also be made of bronze, copper, brass, silver and even from an ancient bronze mirror. Lids have a variety of names depending on their shape. Moributa W are high in the center while *usumoributa W are slightly raised but lower than moributa. Lids with straight flat tops, are called ichimonjibuta ꕶW. Lids that are high around the rim but with the center indented are called sukuibuta dW. If the lid rim projects and the top is flat it is known as kakegobuta |qW. When indented where the knob is placed, the lid is called emyoubuta bW. Lids also may have small dots embossed on the top, ishimebuta ΖڊW, or be decorated with a thin linear pattern itomebuta ڊW. The oldest kettles were usually cast to be used with the portable brazier *furo F, and those intended for use on the ordinary fixed hearth *ro F, were set on a trivet or hung on a tripod.
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