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tobi-ishi@”òÎ
KEY WORD :@architecture / tea houses
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Lit. stepping stones. As the key material for the path of the *roji ˜I’n or tea garden, they are essential to the function of the garden and a key component of its aesthetic design. Depending on the style of the tea master or garden designer, tobi-ishi are said to be 60 percent practical and 40 percent scenic, or 40 percent practical and 60 percent scenic. The arrangement of the stones controls the pace as one proceeds through the garden and sets the mood, whether formal, semiformal or informal. Stepping stones may also be called nori-no-ishi æ‚̐Πwith the implication that they show the guests where to go. Trump stones or *yaku-ishi –ðÎ are also used to highlight the prominent features of the garden scenery. The first trump stone is the *fumi-ishi “¥Î placed by the guest's entrance to the *chashitsu ’ƒŽº, another by the "sword rack" or katanakake “Š|, others by the *chiriana oŒŠ, *tsukubai çLæõ, *sunasetchin »á‰B, *koshikake machiai ˜Š|‘ҍ‡, and *chuumon ’†–å or *nakakuguri ’†ö. It is generally thought that tobi-ishi came to be used from the time of Sen Rikyuu ç—˜‹x (1522-91), who supposedly used stepping stones in roji where moss or dirt path was likely to be muddy after rain. There are many ways of arranging stepping stones, the most common being the chokuuchi ’¼‘Å (straight line), niren'uchi “ñ˜A‘Å(two stone set), sanren'uchi ŽO˜A‘Å(three stone set), *goren'uchi ŒÜ˜A‘Å a five stone set made up of the former two types, shichi-go-san ŽµŒÜŽO(seven, five, three) stone pattern, shisankuzushi ŽlŽO•ö a three and four stone set in a zig-zag pattern *chidorigake ç’¹Š| an alternate stone zig-zag pattern *gan'uchi Šå‘Å the flying geese (extended zig-zag pattern), konohauchi –Ø‚Ì—t‘Å (fallen leaves), and tanzakuuchi ’Zû‘Å (the oblong stone set). Tobi-ishi are generally 6 cm. from the ground in the Rikyuu style, 5 cm. in the Oribe D•” style, and only 3cm. in the Enshuu ‰“B style. The *fumiwake-ishi “¥•ªÎ or stone used at an intersection of paths is usually a little larger and taller than other stones. Commonly used stone types include Kurama ˆÆ”n and Kamogawa ‰ê–ΐì stones, *kurama-ishi ˆÆ”nÎ and *kamogawa-ishi ‰ê–ΐìÎ from Kyoto, Koushuu bB stone from Yamanashi prefecture, Nebukawa ª•{ì, *nebukawa-ishi ª•{ìÎ and Sagami ‘Š–Í stone from Kanagawa prefecture and Tsukuba ’}”g stone from Ibaraki prefecture. There are many tobi-ishi in roji preserved from the Edo period, but few from the Momoyama period. Gardens of several Momoyama period roji such as the Myouki'an –­ŠìˆÁ Tai'an ‘ÒˆÁ in Yamasaki ŽRè, Kan'in-no-seki ŠÕ‰B‚ÌÈ at Jukouin ãڌõ‰@ and Shoukouken ¼ŒüŒ¬ at Koutouin ‚‹Ë‰@ of Daitokuji ‘å“¿Ž› were all added after the original construction. The tobi-ishi of the Gepparou ŒŽ”g˜O at Katsura Rikyuu Œj—£‹{, Kyoto, are perhaps the oldest extent stones in a roji.
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Meimei'an –¾XˆÁ (Shimane)

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