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karesansui@ŒÍŽR…
KEY WORD :@architecture / gardens
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Lit. dry landscape. A common type of garden which suggests mountains and water using only stones, sand or gravel and, occasionally, plants. Water is symbolized both by the arrangements of rock forms to create a dry waterfall *karetaki ŒÍ‘ê and by patterns raked into sand to create a dry stream *karenagare ŒÍ—¬. The word karesansui is found in the 11c garden manual *SAKUTEIKI ì’ë‹L and garden historians have designated Heian period rock arrangemants as zenkishiki karesansui ‘OŠúŒÍŽR…. Karesansui usually refers to dry gardens of the Muromachi, Momoyama and Edo periods, although the term kouki karesansui ŒãŠúŒÍŽR… has been created to distinguish this later type. Because of their similarity to ink monochrome landscape painting suiboku sansuiga …–nŽR…‰æ, particularly that of the Chinese Northern Song dynasty, karesansui gardens are also called *suiboku sansuigashiki teien …–nŽR…‰æŽ®’뉀 or *hokusou sansuigashiki teien –k‘vŽR…‰æŽ®’뉀. Like paintings, the gardens are meant to be viewed from a single, seated perspective. In addition to the aesthetic similarities to Chinese painting, the rocks in karesansui are often associated with Chinese mountains such as Mt. Penglai (Jp; *Houraisan –H—‰ŽR) or Mt. Lu (Jp; Rosan ḎR). Given the multiple Chinese associations of karesansui gardens, they are the preferred type of garden for Zen ‘T temples (Buddhism having arrived from China in the 7c) and the best examples are found in the front or rear gardens of Zen abbots' residences *houjou •ûä. Exemplary Muromachi period examples include the gardens at Daisen-in ‘åå‰@ in Daitokuji ‘å“¿Ž› and at Ryouanji —´ˆÀŽ›. While Muromachi karesansui tend to use plants sparingly, early Edo period gardens of this type often contrast an area of raked gravel with a section of moss and larger plants along the rear wall. The gardens at the Houjou and Konchi-in ‹à’n‰@ at Nanzenji “ì‘TŽ›, and Shinjuan ^ŽìˆÁ and Oubai-in ‰©”~‰@ at Daitokuji are good examples. The aesthetic consonance with abstract art largely accounts for the resurgence of karesansui gardens both in Japan and abroad in the 20c. A good example of a modern karesansui is Shigemori Mirei's dXŽO—é (1896-1975) east garden at Toufukuji Houjou “Œ•ŸŽ›•ûä.
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Ryouanji —´ˆÀŽ› (Kyoto)

Ryouanji —´ˆÀŽ› (Kyoto)

Toufukuji Houjou@“Œ•ŸŽ›•ûä (Kyoto)



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NOTES
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