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juuroku zenshin@\˜Z‘P_
KEY WORD :@art history / iconography
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Also read juuroku zenjin. Abbreviation of Shaka juuroku zenshin Žß‰Þ\˜Z‘P_ or Shaka sanzon juuroku zenshin Žß‰ÞŽO‘¸\˜Z‘P_. Sixteen Protectors of *Shaka Žß‰Þ. A specific group of warlike figures *Yasha –鍳, believed to be the protectors of the DAIHANNYAKYOU ‘å”ÊŽáŒo (Sk: Mahaprajnaparamitasutra, The Great Wisdom Sutra). In art works, Shaka, with the mudra of either *tenbourin-in “]–@—Öˆó or *seppou-in à–@ˆó, is attended by the two bodhisattvas *Fugen •Œ« and * Monju •¶Žê. The Sixteen Protectors appear in two groups of eight to either side and in front of the principal figures. They are believed to guard the sutra and those who uphold it. Paintings of the Sixteen Protectors were hung as central images for ceremonies called Daihannya-e ‘å”ÊŽá‰ï at which there was a tendoku “]“Ç (flipping through pages, or opening scrolls, and reading the chapter headings at breakneck speed) of the text a certain number of times. The earliest record of commissioning a painting for a ceremony dates from 1114, while the earliest extant paintings date from the third quarter of the 12c. The Sixteen Protectors are: Daitorada ’ñ“ª—…‘î *Jikokuten Ž‘“V; Birurokusha ”ùá¸èӍ³ *Zouchouten ‘’·“V; Saifukudokugai ”•š“ÅŠQ; Zouyaku ‘‰v; Kanki Š½Šì; Joissaishounan œˆêØá“ï; Batsujozaiku ”²œßC; Nounin ”\”E; Ueshiramanu –iŽº—…–€[ *Tamonten ‘½•·“V; Birubakusha ”ùḔŽ³ *Koumokuten L–Ú“V; Riissaifui —£ˆêØ•|ˆØ; Kugoissai ‹~ŒìˆêØ; Shoufukushoma Û•š”–‚; Noukushou ”\‹~”—L; Shishiimou ŽtŽqˆÐ–Ò and Yuumoushinchi —E–ҐS’n. Other protective figures such as Changti (Jp: Joutei íše), a nun Fayou (Jp: Houyuu –@—D) *Basusen ”k–÷å and Kudokuten Œ÷“¿“V (a form of *Kichijouten ‹gË“V) may also be included in paintings of the juuoku zenshin. Anan ˆ¢“ï and Kashou ‰Þ—t, disciples of the Buddha (see *Juudai deshi \‘å’íŽq), may also be added. *Bonten ž“V and *Taishakuten ’éŽß“V are sometimes added to the group, making eighteen.
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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