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Hotei@•z‘Ü
KEY WORD :@art history / iconography
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Ch: Budai. A semi-legendary, itinerant 10c Buddhist monk who became a popular subject in Chinese and Japanese ink painting. His real name is said to have been Qici (Jp: Keishi Œ_Ÿ), whose biography is found in the 908 Song Gaosenzhuan (Jp: SOU KOUSOUDEN ‘v‚‘m“`) or the Legends of High Priests of the Song Dynasty. He lived on Mt. Siming Žl–¾ in Mingzhou –¾B, Fenghua •ò‰», where he frequently strolled through a nearby town carrying his large cloth bag (Ch:budai, Jp:hotei •z‘Ü). Thus he earned his affectionate nickname, Priest Budai. Budai's air of "enlightened innocence" led him, like *Kanzan Jittoku Š¦ŽRE“¾, to be admired as an exemplar of Zen values. Although originally he was said to have filled his bag with anything he encountered on his wanderings, later Zen interpretations speak of Budai's empty bag. Ironically, in Japanese popular culture Budai's bulging bag and contented appearance led to his inclusion in the seven gods of good fortune *shichifukujin Žµ•Ÿ_. Budai was also thought to have been an incarnation of *Miroku –íèÓ.
In painting Budai is shown with sparse hair, a smiling face, a large bare belly, loose garments and carrying a bag and wooden staff. In later paintings he is shown in a variety of poses, usually seated or sleeping on his bag, but also dancing, walking or pointing upwards at the moon. In Edo period painting Budai is frequently pictured together with groups of playing children. Early Chinese examples include paintings by Liang Kai (Jp: Ryou Kai —Àž²; mid-13c, Kousetsu á Museum, Hyougo prefecture), Muqi (Jp: Mokkei –qæ®; late 13c), and Yintuoluo (Jp: Indara ˆö‘É—…; late 14c, Nezu ª’à Museum, Tokyo), while a plethora of Japanese versions range from works by Mokuan –ÙˆÁ (?-1345) to Ogata Kourin ”öŒ`Œõ—Ô (1658-1716) to numerous *mitate-e Œ©—§ŠG prints in *ukiyo-e •‚¢ŠG.
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Miroku Bosatsu Zazou –íèӕìŽF¿‘œF Manpukuji Tenouden äݕŸŽ›“V‰¤“a (Kyoto)
Miroku Bosatsu Zazou –íèӕìŽF¿‘œF
Manpukuji Tenouden äݕŸŽ›“V‰¤“a (Kyoto)

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NOTES
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