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fusuma@‰¦
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms
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An abbreviation for fusumashouji ‰¦áŽq, an opaque sliding screen, as distinguished from the translucent screen *akarishouji –¾áŽq. Fusuma first appeared in the Muromachi period, used to close off large spaces into smaller rooms and as cupboard or closet doors. In the Nara and Heian periods folding and single leaf partitions were common. Their structure was similar to fusuma but sliding partitions did not develop until the very end of Heian or the beginning of the Kamakura periods. They were a necessary appurtenance in residential architecture, first in the shoin style *shoin-zukuri ‘‰@‘¢, mansions of the elite and eventually in the houses of farmers and merchants. They were often very elaborate and made of frames covered with thick paper. High quality screens were called nanakaeshibari Žµ•Ô“\, or gokaeshibari ŒÜ•Ô“\, and were made of silk or other kinds of cloth. When the frame was visible, it was lacquered. Many fusuma served as a surface for ink or brilliantly colored paintings by famous artists. The pulls *hikite ˆøŽè, were not always circular but often unique in shape. Elegant tassels *fusa ‘, were attached to the pulls and called *fusahikite ‘ˆøŽè. Vestiges of this taste can be seen on the *choudaigamae ’ ‘ä\‚¦, highly decorative sliding doors to the right of the dais *joudan ã’i, in Nijoujou Kuroshoin Ichi-no-ma “ñðé•‘‰@ ˆê‚ÌŠÔ. The skeleton fusumabone ‰¦œ (fusuma bones) of the sliding screen fusumashitaji ‰¦‰º’n consist of a frame filled with muntins that run vertically *kumite ‘gŽè and horizontally, hirabone •½œ. A board, hiuchi-ita ‰Î‘Ŕ or chikara-ita —Í”Â, is placed in each corner of the rectangle to strengthen the frame. Another board *hikite ˆøŽè is placed in such a way that the upper edge of this board joins the central horizontal muntin, which allows the screen pull to be placed on top. Generally, both the vertical and horizontal muntins that are exactly centered and are heavier strips than all the others. They are called chikarabone —͍œ or chikarako —ÍŽq. All these skeletal parts are enclosed in a frame. After the covering is applied to the back and front and secured to all edges of the frame, a finishing frame of lacquered or precious wood is attached. After the pull is set in, the upper and lower parts of the finished frame may be cut so that they fit into the top and bottom tracks. The top of the frame is called uwabuchi ã‰, the bottom one shitabuchi ‰º‰ and the vertical sides of the frame are called mashibuchi ‘‰. With these frames they are secured but can be lifted out.
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a) *kumite ‘gŽè@b) hiuchi-ita ‰Î‘Ŕ@c) hirabone •½œ@d) uwabuchi ã‰
e) *tatebuchi ’G‰@f) *hikite ˆøŽè@g) hikite-ita ˆøŽè”@h) shitabuchi ‰º‰
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NOTES
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